'-ed' adjectives

A large number of adjectives end in `-ed'.
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related to verbs
Many of them have the same form as the past participle of a transitive verb, and have a passive meaning. For example, a `frightened' person is a person who has been frightened by something.

When I saw my face in the mirror, I was astonished at the change.

Soak dried fruit in water before cooking it.

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Some past participles which do not end in `-ed' are also used as adjectives. They are sometimes called `-ed' adjectives.

It is a good idea to get at least two written estimates.

...searching for a lost ball.

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A few `-ed' adjectives are related to intransitive verbs and have an active meaning. For example, an `escaped' prisoner is a prisoner who has escaped.
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The following `-ed' adjectives have an active meaning:
accumulated, dated, escaped, faded, fallen, retired, swollen, wilted

She is the daughter of a retired army officer.

...a tall woman with a swollen leg.

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related to verbs but different in meaning
Some `-ed' adjectives are related to verbs in form, but have a different meaning from the usual meaning of the verb. For example, to `attach' something to something else means to join or fasten it on, but a person who is `attached' to someone or something is very fond of them.

The tiles had been attached with an inferior adhesive material and were already beginning to fall off.

`Oh, yes,' says Howard, `I'm quite attached to Henry. I've known him for ages.'

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The following adjectives have a different meaning from the usual or commonest meaning of the related verb:
advanced, attached, determined, disposed, disturbed, guarded, marked, mixed, noted
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related to nouns
Many adjectives are formed by adding `-ed' to a noun. They indicate that a person or thing has the thing that the noun refers to. For example, a `bearded' man has a beard.
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The following adjectives are formed by adding `-ed' to a noun:
armoured, barbed, beaded, bearded, detailed, flowered, freckled, gifted, gloved, hooded, pointed, principled, salaried, skilled, spotted, striped, turbaned, veiled, walled, winged

The visitor was a bearded man with mean and unreliable eyes.

Every skilled adult reader takes all of this for granted.

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not related to verbs or nouns
There are a few `-ed' adjectives that are not related to verbs or nouns in the ways described above. For example, the adjective `antiquated' is not related to a verb, because there is no such verb as `antiquate'.
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The following adjectives are not directly related to verbs or nouns:
antiquated, ashamed, assorted, beloved, bloated, concerted, crazed, deceased, indebted, rugged, sophisticated

It was not until the 1970s that a concerted effort was made to import the game of pool into Britain.

Without language, complex social systems and sophisticated technology would be impossible.

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Useful english dictionary. 2012.

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